In the Naval Museum of Madrid there hangs a portrait of a man who was a direct descendant of the famous Somhairle Buí MacDomhnaill. His name was Henry Randal MacDonnell and, among the records of the naval archives at Viso del Marqués, there is a large bundle of documents concerning him from which it is possible not only to piece together the details of his eventful career, but also to extract information of a more personal nature on the life and character of this remarkable man.1
One of these documents tells us that MacDonnell stated his place of origin was Ireland. In fact he was born in Spain in 1753, but this statement of his is an interesting indication of the pride he took in his Irish ancestry and, of course, had he been born in Ireland, he would have still considered in Spain as a Spaniard, for the old tradition that the Irish were of Spanish origin was then acknowledged in both countries. 2 This feeling of kinship with Spain was partly responsible for the great numbers of exiled Irish who sought refuge in that country where, from time immemorial, they were entitled privileges of Spanish citizenship. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries several decrees of successive kings of Spain confirmed these privileges, consequently it was with extraordinary frequency that Irish men reached the highest positions of trust in the service of Spain. For instance, in the early years of MacDonnell’s own lifetime we find that the Prime Minister of Spain was an Irish man Named Ricardo Wall of Limerick origin; 3 the chief of the department of finance was Bernardo Ward, a native of Co. Monaghan; 4 the governor of Madrid was Lieutenant-General Count Alejandro O Reilly of Co. Meath; 5 the Spanish Ambassador of Vienna was Count Dermicio O Mahony of Killarney Origin; 6 General Guillermo de Lacy of Bruee, Co. Limerick was a member of the supreme council of war; 7 General Felix O Neill of Creggan Co. Armagh was governor and captain-General of Galicia. 8 There were still several Irish regiments in the Spanish army and Irish colleges, founded over a century earlier, continued to flourish in Salamanca, Alcala de Henares, Madrid and Seville.
Into this environment Enrique Reynaldo MacDonnell was born in the Spanish north-western town of Pontevedra in 1753. His father, Reynaldo, was then brigadier-general and colonel of the Irish Regiment of Irlanda, and it is worth noting that, although he also had been born in Spain, he held very strongly to his Irish origin and he kept carefully locked in a tin box, the deeds to 8,568 acres in the barony of Glenarm which had been settled on his grandfather by his great-grand-father, the third earl of Antrim. 9
At the age of seven, Enrique Reynaldo was enrolled as a cadet in his father’s regiment. He took no part in the life of the regiment until four years later, in 1764, when he was given rank of second-lieutenant in another Irish regiment, Ultonia. His father had died a short time previously, leaving a young family of four girls, and two boys of whom Enrique was the elder. His widowed mother was admitted to the Royal Household as lady-in-waiting in recognition of the family’s services to the Crown of Spain, and indeed among his immediate family, father, uncles and grandfather, Enrique could number four army generals who had died in the service of Spain. With such a strong army tradition it was surprising to find that in 1776, when he had reached the rank of captain, Enrique applied for a transfer to the navy. The relevant documents give no specific reasons for his decision; perhaps he was impelled by his relentless spirit, or perhaps he had inherited a feeling for the sea from his MacDonnell ancestry. Be that as it may, his regimental records show that despite his youth, he had been a satisfactory infantry officer. His last army report before his transfer to the navy is dated December 1774 and following the usual patterns of such documents, the reports gives us the dates of his promotions, the battles or military activities in which he had taken part, and the colonel’s assessment of his character. And so we learn that MacDonnell, who was then twenty-one years of age, had been with the first battalion of his regiment garrisoned at Ceuta in northern Africa for a year and a half. Of MacDonnell’s talent, courage, application and conduct, the colonel wrote:
“Talent: good. Courage: good. Application: excellent. Conduct: middling.”
Despite the fact that MacDonnell’s conduct did not quite measure up to the standard of his qualities, the inspector general was satisfied: his comment was: “This officer is promising.” And the colonel was in agreement; he wrote: “From this officer I hope to form a good one – de este official espero formar uno bueno.” 10
The colonel of the regiment of Ultonia was then Diego, or James, Aylmer of Co. Kildare. There is quite an amount of information in Spanish Army records about Alymer. He was one of the many Irish officers in the Spanish service who obtained leave of absence from their regiments in order to take part in the Bonnie Prince Charlie expedition to Scotland, but he was captured at sea and spent three years in an English prison before returning to the Spanish army. 11
To return to MacDonnell, it was in 1774, at the age of twenty-one and while he was still an infantry officer that he was nominated for knighthood of the military order of Santiago, to which his father had belonged, and the following year he was admitted Knight Commander of that prestigious order. On that occasion, among the sponsors who testified to their knowledge of the candidate’s character and family background were two Irish generals, three Irish priests and two Irish merchants. 12
MacDonnell then applied for a transfer to the navy. The records state that, following the successful results of an examination; he embarked on the frigate Carmen in September 1776 with the rank of Lieutenant. Until then MacDonnell had seen very little action; according to his army reports the only engagements he had taken part in were some minor skirmishes with the Moors while garrisoned at Ceuta. But now, within a short time, he distinguished himself in several engagements aginst Moorish ships in the Mediterranean and against English ships in the Atlantic off the coast of the Azores, and promotion followed quickly. December 1779 saw him for the first time in command of a ship, sailing with a Spanish convoy to Havana. The American War of Independence was then at its height. In support of the Americans, France had already sent an expeditionary force, which included two of her Irish regiments, Dillon and Walsh. Spain faithful to her treaty with France, now prepared an army, to which was joined the Irish regiment of Hibernia, destined to oppose English forces in the West Indies.
Mac Donnell remained based in Havana and the Spanish possessions of the West Indies for two and a half years. During that time he took part in the siege of Pensacola, several naval engagements and the attack and capture of the island of Roatán off the coast of Honduras in March 1782. There is a very interesting account of this action in the contemporary Spanish newspaper, la Gaceta de Madrid, and a reference to MacDonnell tells us that, before the attack on the island which was occupied by British forces, he was singled out to go to the island and demand its surrender from the governor because he could speak English. From other sources I have found that not only could MacDonnell speak English as well as Spanish, but he could also speak French and Italian.
I have come across many examples of this apparent facility for languages of the Irish abroad; General Daniel O’Mahony of Cremona fame and colonel of the first regiment of Irish dragoons to be formed in Spain had a remarkable command of the French language. Another interesting example is the case of Milesio, or Myles, MacSweeney, a captain in Mahony’s dragoon regiment: in recommending him for promotion, an inspector-general wrote of him: “I consider that he would also be eminently suited to a diplomatic post for he has excellent presence, is an enemy of discord, and speaks fluently in the principal languages of Europe.” It was said of General Alexander O’Reilly that he could speak with great eloquence in a variety of languages. An excellent Spanish dictionary of naval terms, including French, English and Italian equivalents, was compiled and published in Madrid in 1825 by Timoteo O’Scanlan, a naval engineer whose father, a native of Newcastle in Co. Limerick, had been chief medical officer of the Spanish navy.
Early in 1783 MacDonnell, who had been promoted to the rank of captain, returned to Spain and enjoyed a few months’ leave of absence at court with his mother and sisters, all of whom held appointments in the Royal household. He had been wounded in action more than once for he constantly volunteered for the most dangerous assignments and his outstanding conduct was mentioned in dispatches. In the meantime the American war had come to an end and MacDonnell was now attached to the naval base of Cadiz in south-western Spain.
The Spanish possession of North Africa were constantly under attack by the Moors. In previous years several expeditions against Algiers had been mounted by Spain, but never with great success. In 1784, yet another was being prepared under the command of the famous Spanish Admiral Antonio Barcelo. Barcelo is one of the great heroes of Spain where his name is synonymous with courage and daring, and the expression “as brave as Barcelo of the seas” is in use to the present day: valiente como Barcelo por la mar. Among the documents of MacDonnells dossier there is a letter from Barcelo to the Spanish minister of the navy, Antonio Valdes, in which he asks that Enrique Reynaldo be transferred from Cadiz to Cartagena where the expedition was being prepared; because, he wrote on the 15th June 1784, he needed to employ a man of the qualities of MacDonnell. The minister agreed and an order authorising the transfer was duly sent to the naval base of Cadiz. But, as it turned out, MacDonnell did not sail with Barcelo and, reading through the correspondence concerning this incident, we are reminded of the difficulties of travel our ancestors had to face two centuries ago. The distance from Cadiz to Cartagena is about six hundred kilometres and MacDonnell had planned his route overland from Cadiz to Malaga, some one hundred and eighty kilometres, then by sea the rest of the way. Having reached Malaga with tired horses, he was delayed there because easterly winds made it impossible to sail out of the port. Eventually he learned from incoming ships that Barcelo’s fleet had sailed, so he returned to his base.
Still in Cadiz, the following year, MacDonnell had an encounter with a French man, which was to have unpleasant consequences. It happened to be the 28th June, 1785 and, that evening, he wrote a brief letter to the commanding officer of the naval base, of which the following is a literal translation:
“Muy senor mio: this afternoon, at the bull ring, I was insulted by a French individual who obliged me to give him a blow with my stick; upon which he raised his own stick to return the blow. In view of this, and seeing myself in the sad situation of having my honour insulted, I drew my sword and wounded him. I have informed the Governor and Captain General who has put me under house arrest. May God keep you many years,
Your humble servant,
Enrique Reynaldo MacDonnell”
The Governor of Cadiz and captain-general of the province, at the time, was none other than Lieutenant Alejandro O’Reilly of Co. Meath, previously governor of Madrid. There followed an enquiry and a great deal of correspondence between O’Reilly and the ministry at Madrid, from which it appears that the altercation took place at the bull ring of Cadiz, just before the beginning of the bull fight. According to the witnesses voices were raised and MacDonnell was heard saying in French to the French man: “Sir, hold your tongue,” to which the French man replied that he would not, and the blows followed. We are left in ignorance of what the French man said or did originally to provoke MacDonnell’s anger, but we are given an interesting sidelight on MacDonnell’s view on class distinction; quite clearly he was not in sympathy with revolutionary ideals. In one of his letters of this time, attempting to justify himself, he wrote as follows to the minister of the navy, Antonio Valdes:
“… Your Excellency will permit me to point out that, in this case, the judge’s conclusion has taken into account only the laws of the land which were infringed by my action, and has completely ignored the laws of honour which carry such weight in the military profession and are, or should be, considered as its central nerve. Unfortunately, these two sets of laws are not always compatible and, in circumstances, I judged it preferable to risk the rigour of the former, rather that be subjected to the ignominy of receiving a blow, in the presence of multiple people, from the hands of a foreigner who is the brother of a fan maker in Paris, and who would not have dared to address me as he did had he not been moved by that spirit of equality which is so prevalent in that city, despite the good measures which the government has taken to suppress it …”
Incidentally, those words were written in 1785, four years before the storming of the Bastille and the outbreak of the French revolution.
Fortunately for all concerned, the French man did not die, though MacDonnell in his anger had wounded him three times. When the Judge’s conclusion had been submitted to the king, the Royal decision was that MacDonnell, who had already been under arrest for three months, be imprisoned for a further period of two months in the prison of El Puntal, an old castle on a rock in the bay of Cadiz.
We hear no more of MacDonnell until April 1788 when he was appointed to serve as captain of the port of Cadiz. During his term of office, which lasted a little more than a year, MacDonnell witnessed the return of the Irish regiment of Hibernia, which had been garrisoned at Havana for the previous five years and which disembarked at Cadiz in September 1788. He witnessed also the departure of the two ships that had been commissioned to sail around the world on a voyage of scientific exploration under the famous Alessandro Malaspina. Among the officers of one of those ships was lieutenant Diego Murphy of Co. Wexford origin.
Many more Irish naval colleagues of MacDonnell’s were based at Cadiz and among them was Tomas Geraldino, Geraldino being the Spanish version of Fitzgerald. Tomas Geraldino’s grandfather and namesake, of Kilkenny origin, had been a Spanish ambassador at the court of St. James in the 1740s and Geraldino himself was the inventor of a method of filtering sea water which the king ordered to be used throughout the Spanish navy. He reached the rank of Admiral and was killed in action off Cape St. Vincent in 1797 in a battle against the English fleet under Admiral Jervis.
Cadiz was not only a naval base but also a flourishing trade centre in which a large colony of Irish merchants was then established for well over a century and included every type of occupation, from barber, tailor and inn keeper to wine merchant, banker and ship owner. During the year of MacDonnell’s captaincy of the port, one of the most outstanding members of that colony was granted the privilege of hidalguía, that is, he was officially recognised as being from noble origin. This was Don Pedro O’Crowley, whose father came from Co. Cork and whose mother was an O’Donnell. 13 Don Pedro became an antiquary of repute not only in Cadiz but also internationally. Among the works published by him is a catalogue of his own private collection which lists over five thousand Greek and Roman coins, some two hundred paintings and many geological specimens which he himself had collected during his business trips in New Spain; and the house where he lived still stands in Cadiz, bearing the O’Crowley arms above the main doorway.
Meanwhile, MacDonnell had grown weary of the dullness of his life in the port of Cadiz and he sought permission to serve as a volunteer with the navy of Sweden, then at war with Russia. On the 7th of April 1789, he sent a petition to the King and a letter to the minister of the navy, asking him to support his petition because, he wrote, his objective was:
“… to instruct myself in the great operations of war and in the manner of carrying them out to the best advantage. And also to study anything that may be of use to the navy of Spain…”
The permission was granted and, after some delay over arrangements for the transfer of his salary to Sweden, he left Spain in July 1789. The following month, embarked on a ship of the Swedish fleet, he was at the naval battle of Swens-Kend off the coast of Russian Finland. An official account of the battle states that MacDonnell’s ship, the Odden, found itself under attack by seven ships of the Russian fleet and held out for four hours, at the end of which having lost a third of the crew, and with all but four guns out of action, the Odden surrendered and MacDonnell seriously wounded, was taken prisoner to St. Petersburg. Two months later, he was back in Sweden, reporting as follows from Stockholm to the Spanish minister of the navy:
"On my arrival in St. Petersburg, the vice-chancellor, count of Osterman, gave me my liberty by order of his sovereign on condition that I would not continue to serve against Russia in this war. The Russian authorities have treated me with the greatest courtesy and humanity, particularly the Prince of Nassau who, besides offering me any funds I might need, had prepared lodgings for me in his own house; but I felt I should not accept. On my departure from St. Petersburg I decided to return to this city because it did not seem proper to go back to Spain without giving my thanks personally to this sovereign for the manner in which he was pleased to honour me at his camp of Hugfors where I was a guest at his Majesty’s table during the four days he spent there. Since my arrival here the Prime Minister has informed me that his Majesty invites me to return to his court or, if I so wish, to continue serving with his fleet…”
MacDonnell was not exaggerating when he said that he received the greatest honours in Sweden. True to his word to the Russians, he refused the King’s offer to take command of the Swedish fleet, but such was the esteem he had gained that he was pressed further to give his advice at a general council of war in the presence of King Gustav III, and this he accepted to do. In recognition of his services the King wished to award him the Cross of the Order of the Sword and to present him with a gold ceremonial sword inscribed with the name and date of the battle at which MacDonnell had so distinguished himself. He refused both these distinctions saying to Gustav III, as he reported himself in a letter to the Spanish Minister of the navy:
“We Spanish officers fight only for the sake of honour, and that which I believe I have acquired by exposing my life for your majesty’s interests and those of your country, is the greatest reward to which I could aspire.”
But MacDonnell’s refusal had another reason, which he explained in that same letter to the Spanish Minister:
“No one is more interested than myself in my own personal distinctions, but the dignity of my country comes first. I must inform your Excellency that there is here an English captain who has served as a volunteer in this fleet during the past campaign and the misfortunes, which the fleet suffered at Biorkon are attributed to his foolish advice. Nevertheless the King has awarded him the sash of Commander of the same military Order of the Sword and, since I see no motive for his favour other than the Anglophile spirit which reigns in these countries. I decided not to accept the favour which was offered me …”
This was in October 1790. Shortly afterwards MacDonnell returned to Spain and, when he had landed at the port of Ferrol in Galacia, he received a letter expressing the Spanish King’s approval of and satisfaction with his conduct.
Among the documents of the following year there is an interesting petition of MacDonnell’s addressed to the King, asking for a post with the fleet appointed for the defence of Spanish possessions of Oran in North Africa. In this document he states that the main reason, which moves him to ask for this favour, is the fact that his grandfather had served as major-general at the reconquest of Oran from the Moors. He is also anxious; he writes, to cultivate the art of war, the only patrimony, which his ancestors have left him.
The reconquest of Oran which he refers to had taken place in 1732 and his grandfather was Randal, or Reynaldo MacDonnell, who had left Ireland as a boy after the siege of Limerick in 1691 and who was a grandson of the third Earl of Antrim. For his outstanding services at Oran, Reynaldo had been promoted lieutenant-general and was awarded a yearly pension of four hundred doubloons by the King of Spain, Philip V. Enrique Reynaldo’s request to be allowed to follow in the footsteps of his grandfather was not successful, but the King in his answer expressed the appreciation of his zeal and had appointed him commander of the ship San Felipe.
At this time, 1791, the revolution in France was having repercussions throughout Europe. In Spain, King Carlos IV issued orders for the formation of a special register of foreigners who settled in the country. Forgetting or ignoring the special status of the Irish, the commissioners in Cadiz approached some of the numerous colony in that city and requested them to comply with the necessary formalities. They were met with surprised indignation on the part of the Irish. Jealous of their long-standing privilege of citizenship, they appointed three of their members, Eduardo Murphy, Enrique Dowell and Juan Walsh, to make representations to the King. As a result a Royal decree was published in March 1792 in which the King declared:
“The Irish settled in these realms shall keep and maintain the privileges granted to them by which they are made equal to the native Spaniards, and no formalities or oaths shall be exacted from the Irish which are not exacted from native Spaniards, seeing that, by the fact of their establishing themselves in these realms, the Irish are reputed Spaniards and enjoy the same rights according to the Letters which I have issued in their favour…”
In March 1793, war was openly declared between France and Spain. In Spain there was enormous popular support for the war against the French revolutionary government. A wave of patriotic feeling swept through the country and contributions to the war effort poured in from all quarters; among the first to contribute was MacDonnell who offered the revenue of his commandery in the Order of Santiago. The King expressed his gratitude but did not accept it; perhaps he was aware of MacDonnell’s poor financial situation for, apart from the small income of his commandery, he depended solely on his salary and payments to officers were then regularly in arrears of anything up to three years.
MacDonnell was then only forty years of age, but he had become embittered by what he considered to be a lack of recognition of his services and talents on the part of the Spanish government. A letter of this to the minister of the navy in August 1793 expresses those feeling in unequivocal terms:
“Excelentisimo Senor,” he wrote, “before we left Madrid … your Excellency promised me formally that I would be given better ships to command. Hardly had I reached Cadiz that the ship America was given to an officer seven years my junior. I arrived in Cartagena and the same things occurred with the ships Asia and Paula. And now the Pelayo is given to Don Pedro Winthuisen, who is junior to me, while I am given the Gallardo, which that officer has left because, he says, it is rotten.”
“I understand then, because it is repeated to me so often, that I am worth less than my juniors. And to tell the truth that idea does not please me in the least. Nevertheless, within myself, I cannot but laugh at the strange course of the things of this world.”
“In Sweden that great King Gustav the third, a most eminent philosopher and soldier, had formed a different opinion of my talents. For the campaign of 1790 he wished to give me the absolute command of his fleet of three hundred and twenty sails and twenty two thousand men. In Russia I am offered a brilliant command, which I refuse, and so my prisoner of war status is still maintained by that country through fear of my military talents. But here in my own country I must endure petty haggling over greater or lesser command and it seems that any ship, which is given to me, is considered as lost. Therefore, since after seventeen years of service in the navy I have not left a better impression of myself, I must seek to establish it elsewhere, and ask for my transfer to the infantry with whatever rank his Majesty may find suitable.”
Undoubtedly MacDonnell had good cause for complaint. In the earlier years of that century another Irish man in Spanish service, General Daniel O’Mahony, had a similar experience and, on seeing others of less merit but more influence promoted above him, had written bitterly: “One campaign at the court is worth three against the enemy.” MacDonnell would certainly not have considered carrying out a campaign at court; however a man of less fiery temperament might have acted with more restraint. Enrique Reynaldo antagonised the authorities by the violent reaction of his wounded pride; even before having received an answer to his petition for transfer to the army he informed the chief of the naval base at Cartagena, to which he was attached, that he was resigning the command of the Gallandro for reasons of health. From Madrid, he then received a refusal to his petition; the chief of the naval base was rebuked for having accepted MacDonnell’s resignation without, according to the ministry, legitimate reason of illness, and MacDonnell was ordered, under pain of royal displeasure, to resume his command of the Gallandro. Nevertheless five months later, on 25th January 1794, he was promoted to the rank or rear-admiral.
During the next five years MacDonnell made several journeys to Havana and while there suffered a long illness, which put him out of action for over a year. He returned to Spain in 1800 and the following year, as peace was being negotiated between Spain and the other warring countries of Europe, he asked for and received permission to retire from active service without pay but with the use of the uniform of his rank.
In 1804, war with England was declared and MacDonnell, who was then fifty-one, immediately offered his services even in a junior capacity if necessary. After some official correspondence and delay he was restored to active service with his own rank as rear-admiral and was given command of the Rayo, a ship of one hundred guns. He received his command just in time to take part in the battle of Trafalgar and the Rayo was among the first to fight and one of the last to resist. That evening, despite the damage it had suffered, MacDonnell managed to bring his ship to the shelter of a small port of Placer de Rota. In the fighting tradition of his ancestors he was not yet defeated. During that night he and his battle-weary crew rushed the essential repairs and dawn sent them forth once more in search of the enemy. MacDonnell’s daring intention was to release some of the Spanish ships captured by the English. This indomitable courage deserved some success, but an unkind fate intervened and one of the fiercest storms in years drove the Rayo on to the rocks near Torre Carbonera. MacDonnell survived and was promoted to vice-admiral.
At the outbreak of the Spanish War of Independence in 1808, an English fleet under Admiral Purvis was blockading the harbour of Cadiz. MacDonnell was entrusted by the Junta of Seville with negotiations to secure the English admiral’s agreement to suspend hostilities, end the blockade and initiate talks with representatives of the Junta. In this he was so successful that the English general Sir John Moore, one of the first to go ashore for these talks, offered to press for MacDonnell’s appointment as the Junta’s ambassador in London; but MacDonnell refused because, he said:
“…to have accepted a diplomatic post when there was a general call to arms in my country, would not have been in keeping with the dignity and character of a high ranking officer…”
it is difficult to understand why he was given no further employment during the six years of the war, despite the fact that he wrote innumerable petitions asking to be employed in any capacity against the enemy. It is true that, with his unbending sense of honour and justice, he was constantly pointing out the abuses committed and the inequality of many an appointment, and so he probably made enemies. Whatever the reason, during those terrible years of war he was denied any opportunity of active service.
Finally at the end of the war in 1814 MacDonnell was appointed full-admiral and, three years later, member of the supreme council of the admiralty. He died in Cadiz in 1823. He never married and was the last male descendant of this Spanish branch of the remarkable MacDonnells of Antrim.
- Archivo Museo Don Alvaro de Brazan, Viso del Marques, expedients personales.
- There are many references of this tradition in letters and memorials of the Irish in Spain; see M.K. Walsh in Seanchas Ard Macha, Vol. IX, no. 2, pp. 280–281.
- Lieutenant-General Ricardo Wall was born at Nantes in Brittany on 5 November 1694 and his father’s place of origin was Kilmallock in Co. Limerick. Wall was leader of the Spanish government from 1754 until his retirement in 1763; see “Lieutenant Ricardo Wall,” in The Irish Sword, Vol. 2, no.6, pp. 88– 4.
- Bernardo Ward was appointed to his post in the department of Finance shortly before 1756 and was still in office in 1764 when he acted as sponsor for Juan MacKenna of Glaslough in Co. Armagh on the latter’s admission to the military order of Alcantara; see M.K. Walsh, Spanish Knights of Irish Origin, Vol. IV, p. 15.
- O’Reilly was later governor Louisiana, governor of Cadiz and captain-general of Adalucia. He became a knight of the military order of Alcantara in 1765; see M.K. Walsh, op.cit., vol. IV, pp. 16-19.
- Dermicio was the son of General Count Daniel O’Mahony of Cremona fame; he was appointed ambassador of Spain to Vienna shortly before 1766 and died in that city in 1778.
- Guillermo de Lacy was appointed to the Supreme Council of War in 1750 and was a knight of the military of Santiago; see M.K. Walsh, op.cit., pp. 75–79.
- As a young captain, O’Neill had taken part in the Bonnie Prince Charlie expedition to Scotland and fought at Culloden where he was taken prisoner. On his return to Spain he became colonel of the Irish regiment of Hibernia and rose to the rank of lieutenant-general. He was appointed captain-general of Galicia shortly after 1770 and was later captain-general of Aragon and member of the Supreme Council of War. He became knight of the military order of Carlos III in 1792; see M.K. Walsh, op. cit., Vol IV. pp. 79-82.
- For an account of the careers of Enrique Reynaldo’s father and grandfather, see M.K. Walsh, The MacDonnells of Antrim on the Continent, Dublin, 1960.
- Archivo General, Simancas, Guerra Moderna, legajo 2760.
- Archivo General, Simancas, Guerra Moderna, legajos 2592 and 2667-2670.
- They were General Count Alejandro O’Reilly, General Domingo O’Reilly, the merchants and bankers Estevan Woulfe and Pedro Kearney, father Edmundo O’Ryan, father Diego Carney O.S.F., and father Patricio Curtis, chaplain of the Duke of Osuna and uncle of Dr. Patrick Curtis who was later rector of the Irish College of Salamanca and Archbishop of Armagh.
- Records of the Proof of nobility, pruebas de hidalguia, O’Crowley and many other compatriots of his are to be found in the Archivo Municipal, Cadiz.
(Vol. 11, 1983) Copies of the Glynns Journals can be purchased from the societie’s bookshop.