The Ordnance Survey Memoir for the Parish of Ardclinis

INTRODUCTION

In June 1968, the Glens of Antrim Historical Society published the Ordnance Survey Memoirs for the Parish of Layd and the Granges of Layd and Inispollan under the title, Life in the Glens of Antrim in the 1830’s. Now, in this first number of its annual journal, the Society continues to publish the Memoirs of those parishes within the Glens by presenting the Memoir for the Parish of Ardclinis.

It may be said that the Ordnance Survey owes its existence to the defeat of the Scots at the battle of Culloden in 1746. It was then considered that the mapping of the Highlands was a necessity if the English red coats were to retain their control of them. So, by royal command, the mapping began. A certain Col. Watson was put in charge of the operation. The scale he used was one inch to a mile, and the features depicted were primarily of military significance. In 1790, owing to the war with France, mapping of the south eastern counties of England was begun. Again this was a military operation during which, for the sake of accuracy, a base line on Salisbury Plain was very carefully measured.

After the war, in 1821, attention was turned to where accurate maps, not for military, but for land valuation purposes, were needed. For this a much larger scale was required, and so Ireland became the first country in the British Isles to be mapped on the enlarged scale of six inches to a mile. To link the mapping of with that of Britain, the summit of Divis Mountain was “fixed” from where the primary triangulation of commenced. By this a second base line was plotted on the Magilligan Peninsula, and when checked by measurement on the ground, was found to be very accurate indeed.

By 1831, detailed chain surveying had started in Co. Antrim. As this progressed, statistical accounts of each parish were written up by the young army officers and their civil assistants who performed the survey. Such a report is that on the parish of Ardclinis by Lieutenant John Chaytor, written in December, 1832. But in general, these were thought to be too sketchy to be of use. The director of the Irish Survey in Dublin, Thomas Aiskew Larcom, who himself, in 1851, wrote the classic account of Sir William Petty’s mapping of Ireland exactly two hundred years earlier, required fuller accounts to be returned. Thus the following second report on Ardclinis came to be written by James Boyle in 1835.

It was Larcom’s intention that all the memoirs should be printed, but in fact only one volume was published – that for the parish of Templemore (Derry) in 1838. In 1840, when the writing up of memoirs was discontinued altogether, some 20,000 pages had been compiled. These are now in the safe-keeping of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, where they fill some 52 boxes, 20 for County Derry, 17 for County Antrim, 2 ½ for County Down, 2 for Tyrone, Fermanagh and Donegal, 1 for Armagh and Cavan and half a box for Monaghan.

The Glens of Antrim Historical Society is indebted to the Trustees of the Royal Irish Academy who have again kindly permitted us to publish. The Society would also like to record its gratitude for the assistance, advice and constant encouragement given by Mr. Brian Trainor, Deputy Keeper of the Records of Northern Ireland.

NOTE ON EDITING THE MEMOIR
The Ordnance Survey Memoirs for the Parish of Ardclinis consist of three different reports, which overlap considerably. The first was written by Lieutenant John Chaytor in December 1832 and is here transcribed in its entirety. The other two are a rough and a fair copy of a report written by Mr. James Boyle in 1835, which have here been run into one. This has been done by transcribing the whole of the fair copy, and adding to it in the appropriate places, in square brackets, those details from his rough copy which find no mention in either of the other two. As far as possible, place-names as found on the current one inch Ordnance Survey map, have been used in the text.

STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF ARDCLINIS PARISH

Name: The first part of this name in plain, the latter disguised and signifies high lofty Lat. Arduus and when taken substantively it means hill or height (which in the present case is very applicable) and forms the first part of many names in .

The latter part Clinis or Clinnis is so disguised that no explanation has been found.

Situation: It is situated in the barony of Lower Glenarm, diocese of Connor and in the north-east extremity of the county of Antrim .

Boundaries: It is bounded on the north and east by the Irish channel, on the south by the parishes of Tickmacrevan and Skerry and on the west and north-west by the parishes of Dunaghy and Layd.

Extent: It extends from north to south and from east to west about 5 miles each and contains 15,692 statute acres.

Divisions: It is divided into 53 townlands. The principal proprietors are Lord Mark Kerr, Mr. McDonald, Mr. Turnley, Counsellor Dobbs and Major Higgison.

It is let in small farms; the occupants are almost all tenants at will. The lowland part of the parish lying between Garron Point and Carnlough averages at from £1 10s. 0d. to £2 2s 0d. per acre and that in Glenariff about £1 per acre with a privilege of the mountain in proportion to their lowland holdings.

Surface and Soil: It is for the most part a barren mountainous tract of country, the greater part of which is boggy pasture.

There is a range of rocks extending along the coast for nearly 5 miles, most of which is not more than ¼ mile from it and in some parts even nearer showing a steep rugged face and in many places perpendicular, varying in height from 700 to 800 ft. Between this range and the shore passes the road from Cushendall to Glenarm.
From Red Bay the range extends the south side of Glenariff for about 4 miles; a trignometrical point called Carneal is situated near the edge of the precipice, the altitude of which is 1,306 ft. Another called Crockravar situated near the head of the Glen and not far distant from the range is 1,294 ft. so that the part of the range from Red Bay south of the Glens is much higher than that along the coast though the latter is more rugged. The base of the range is skirted with underwood and huge masses of the chalk rock which have slipped from the precipice and in many places rolled to the shore. At the southern extremity of these cliffs the face of the mountain is skirted with a thick planting. Garron Point is the most easterly part of this parish and halfway between Glenarm and Cushendall. It is 244 ft. above the level of the sea, nearly a perpendicular rock of chalk and basalt, a 100 ft. being chalk and the remainder basalt.

The ground at the summit of the rock falls at a slope of 11o for 250 yards when the mountain rises abruptly having the same appearance as the point with chalk and basalt. From this it may be inferred that the portion forming the point was at one time connected with the adjoining mountain and has slipped to its present position. The several copious mountain streams that fall over these rocks tend to heighten its appearance presenting the traveller with a rare combination of rude and majestic beauties which renders the scene highly picturesque. The road being in good repair, the drive along this part of the coast is most pleasing. Near the south-east extremity of the parish there is a portion almost entirely basaltic rock, not in the form of cliffs or precipices, but assuming the appearance of little hills; on these there is little vegetation. On that part of the mountain lying next the coast there is some tolerable dry pasture extending for a short distance from the rock head, but almost all the rest of the mountain is extremely soft and marshy so much so that in various places it is impassable during winter and interspersed with numerous little lakes varying in extent from 1 to 17 acres. Colin Top situated near the south-west extremity is the highest mountain the parish. Its altitude is 1,418 ft; distance from the sea about 4 ¼ miles.

The only cultivation in the parish is a small portion in the vicinity of Carnlough and a few patches along the coast together with that in Glenariff.

Produce: Potatoes, wheat, oats and beans are the principal crops, occasionally barley rye and flax. Not being a manufacturing district the latter is not much cultivated.

They derive a valuable manure from the seaweed which is swept in by the tide. It seldom fails to produce large crops of potatoes. Then follows wheat or oats. Beans are generally sown as a second or third crop after potatoes. Most of the inhabitants of this parish rear young cattle which are smaller than those bred on a richer soil; also small sheep and ponies which they import from the highlands of .

Turbary: There is abundance of turbary in various parts of the parish. The inhabitants of Carnlough and its vicinity get their turf from Cregan and Lemnalary Mountain . Those about Garron Point from Galboly Mountain and those in Glenariff from the mountains of Glenariff and Carrivemurphy. As the use of wheel carriages in most of these places is impracticable both from the boggy nature and acclivity of the ground the mode of conveyance most in practice is that of the slide car drawn by ponies.

Geology: There is little variety in the geology of this parish, the principal rock being chalk and basalt which appear in contact in great quantities all along the coast and in Glenariff.

In the vicinity of Carnlough and along the mountain range to Garron Point the chalk seems to prevail and from Red Bay to the head of Glenariff the basalt.

Every farmer being enabled to procure lime on this own land there is little burned for sale. Some are in the habit for boating limestone to where they barter it for coal and get value at the rate of 7s. per ton but not to such extent as in the town and neighbourhood of Glenarm. There has been no mineral discovered in the parish.

Towns etc: Carnlough situated in the south-east extremity is the only town in the parish. It is bounded on the east by the sea and the Carnlough river which is the parish boundary runs through its southern extremity.

The town is very small, the houses bad and the inhabitants poor. The most of them are small farmers and fishermen. By the census of 1831 the town contains 56 houses and 260 individuals.

*There is a small quay at the north-east end of the town which has been for some years in a state of dilapidation. Small craft from 15 to 20 tons can come in here. The principal commodity imported is coal from together with some trifling merchandize from Belfast and that of export, potatoes, grain, limestone, etc. Several of the inhabitants from the interior of the country resort thither during the summer months for the benefit of sea bathing but it is by no means so popular a watering place as Glenarm which is two miles distant.
In Carnlough there are six fairs annually chiefly for black cattle and sheep.

Manufactories: There are no manufactories in this parish. Unlike most other parts in the North of Ireland they make no cloth for market, though almost every family makes the linen and woollen required for their own use.

In the town of Carnlough there is a corn mill and a flax mill, and in the towland of Bay there is a tuck mill.
Roads: The principal road is that which passes through the lowland part of the parish along the coast leading from Cushendall to Glenarm passing through Carnlough from which place to Garron Point it is good. At the Point it has been improved by Mr. Turnley; from Garron Point to Cushendall the road is hilly and in bad repair.

The road branching off at Red Bay and passing through the Ardclinis part of Glenariff is the way by which the inhabitants go to Ballymena. It is not in good repair.

Rivers: The Carnlough river runs about 3 ½ miles. It rises from a small lough in the parish of Tickmacrevan about 1 ¼ miles east of Colin Top and falls into the sea at the town of Carnlough . It is of little consequence though from the numerous mountain streams that flow into it, it is frequently very rapid. In the winter great quantities of salmon and trout go up this river for about a mile at which place there is a waterfall which they cannot pass.

It is the mearing of the parish of Tickmacrevan and Ardclinis from its source to the sea.

Immediately on the beach at Garron Point there is a strong flow of water from a cavity in a chalk rock from which the name of the place is said to be derived.

In the Irish it is called Gob an Gharoan signifying the short river point. Its source cannot be traced. Some of the inhabitants say that the chaff of corn thrown into a lake in Galboly mountain has been seen floating down this stream. It is 1 ¼ miles distant and about 900 ft. higher than the sea. Glenariff river mears the parish on the north (vide statistics of Layd parish).

The coast is bold and rocky. About 1 ¼ miles north of Carnlough there is a projection of detached rocks and gravel called Ringfad on which several vessels have been wrecked. Ordinary tides rise about 5 and spring tides about 7 ft.

Wood: About halfway between Garron Point and Carnlough, west of the road is situated the most extensive wood in the parish, principally fir.

It contains upwards of 30 acres, the greater part of which has only been a few years planted.

It skirts the brow and face of the mountain for about three quarters mile at bottom of which stand the most extensive mansion in the parish called Drimnasole built by Mr. Turnley. The situation is good and surrounded by some large fir trees.

From this to Garron Point the face of the mountain is covered with natural wood.

At Red Bay stands Bay Lodge at present occupied by Mr. Mathewson. It is well situated immediately at the foot of Carn Neill Mountain. Around it there are some fir trees which together with a small fir planting at Carnlough and that at Drimnasole comprise all the wood in the parish with the exception of the underwood in Glenariff.

Population: By the census of 1831 the population of the parish amounted to 1,716 of which there are 6 protestant, 12 Methodist and 24 Presbyterian families. The remainder are Roman Catholics.

There is no established house of worship in the parish. The Protestants congregate in Drimnasole schoolhouse, the Presbyterians in Glenarm, the Methodists in Carnlough schoolhouse and the Roman Catholics in Layd Chapel. The Rev. Mr. Duncan is rector and the curate officiating is the Rev. Mr. Wilson who resides in Carnlough.

The language of the inhabitants is a compound of English, Irish and Gaelic, though few of them speak either in purity. There are no resident gentlemen amongst them, no manufacture, no commerce. In their limited agricultural pursuits and fishing they spend the most of their time. The Protestants and Presbyterians live (almost exclusively) in Carnlough and its immediate vicinity.

Mr. Turnley is patron of the Drimnasole school. It is at present under the care of the Kildare Street Society, Dublin.

The Carnlough school is under the care of the Wesleyna Methodist Society.

Antiquities: There are three ancient forts in the parish. The one situated in the townland of Drumnacur near Red Bay is used as a place of interment for strangers and unbaptised children. There is one situated near Garron Point called Dunmall Fort. It is said to have been a place appointed by some of the northern chiefs for the receiving of rent, to which place they brought it in bags; hence its present name which signifies the bagged fort. It is said to have been of considerable strength, having a pair of pillars, a large iron gate and a watch tower at each side with a vault in the interior, nothing of which now remains.

Dungallon Fort is situated on the coast in the townland of Slate House. It, at present, presents no appearance of art but rather that of a little knoll. It is planted on top. The name signifies the foreigners fort.

Drimnasole schoolhouse is said to be erected on the site of a fortification of some note called Castle Hill around which was also a burial place for insane persons and unbaptised children. There is a spring well near the south end of the house. It is called “Tubberdoney” signifying holy well around which Roman Catholics of the neighbourhood used to do penance.

In the townland of Highlandtown situated on the brow of the hill can be traced the remains of a square building at present called Castle Hill. It is said to have been a fortress. Its date has not been ascertained.
The remains of a firelock was found herewithin the last 20 years, but nearly decomposed.

The two principal burial grounds in the parish are situated in the townland of Ardclinis and Nappan (they are exclusively Roman Catholics; the protestants are buried in Glenarm).

In the former stand the remains of a building called the “old church” no date of which can be found.

(Signed) Jhn Chaytor Lieutenant Royal Engineers 15 December 1832.

Natural Features and Modern Topography of the Parish of Ardclinis, Co. Antrim,
January – April 1835 by James Boyle*


SECTION 1 – NATURAL FEATURES

Hills: A narrow strip of ground averaging ¼ mile in breadth extends along the entire coast of this parish and up one side of the valley of Glenariff . This is bounded for about 5 miles on the land side by a range of rugged and precipitous rocks varying in height from 700 to 1,300 ft. above the level of the sea. The range extending along the north-west side of the parish forms the south-east side of the beautiful valley of Glenariff and uniting with the range forming its north-west side, forms a continuation of the Trostan range of mountains. This range of precipices, supports a large top wholly mountainous and uncultivated; on it are several minor ridges; of these Collin Top (1,419 ft above the level of the sea) is the highest. The tops of these mountains are in many places marshy and fenny and from the deep pools with which they abound, are even in summer very dangerous and in many places totally impassable. There are many swampy flats which are quite barren. The sides of the hills particularly the south side of Collin and the range extending eastward of it are covered by a dense coating of moss entwined with bilberries (which abound here) and heath which renders their ascent very difficult and fatiguing. This is more the case of a southern side than on the northern and eastern which are more abrupt and rocky and less covered with herbage. Along the margin of the cliffs at the northern and towards the southern side, the mountains are thickly studded with numerous basaltic caps and breaks of the strata. These in many places particularly at the Trosk rise in tiers to a considerable height and present a rugged appearance. The principal points in this parish are Collin 1,419, Crockavar 1,291, Carneal 1,304 and Trosk 1,262 ft above the level of the sea.

Lakes: There are 17 lakes and 8 pools or very small lakes. They are all in the mountains and at various heights from 1,179 to 939 ft above the level of the sea. Many of the larger lakes seem to be formed by the oozings from the extensive and swampy flats with which they are surrounded, and many of the lesser ones seem to be formed by water having lodged in the hollows among the basaltic rocks. Many of these lakes are surrounded with long grass and bull rushes in which wild ducks hatch in great numbers in the season. Lough Fadd is one of the largest lakes in this parish; its elevation above the level of the sea is 1,150 ft and its greatest summer depth is 6 ft but many of the smaller lakes do not in their greatest summer depth exceed 2 ½ ft.
Rivers:
Carnlough river flows along the south side of this parish forming a boundary between it and the parish of Tickamcrevan. For a description of it see ‘Rivers’ in the latter parish. Glenariff river flows along the north-west side of this parish forming the boundary between it and the parish of Layd. For a description of it see ‘Rivers’ in the latter parish.

There is a remarkable flow of water on the north-east side of Garron Point and within a few yards of the tideway. A strong stream pushes out of a limestone rock. Its source is supposed to be a large lake which lies 1 ¼ miles inland at elevation of 900 ft above the level of the sea. It is said that chaff thrown into that lake has afterwards been seen floating down the stream. This parish is very well supplied with spring and river water, the latter by the numerous streams which flow over the rocks along its coast.

Bogs: The greater portion of the mountain district of this parish is bog, which varies in depth from 3 to 9 ft. and at elevations of from 700 to 1,350 ft. above the level of the sea. The trunks of fir and oak trees (principally the former) are sometimes found in these bogs at various depths but generally on the substratum which is a sort of decomposed red basalt. Roots are rarely found.

In the valley of Glenariff oak trees of considerable size have been often found. Their trunks seemed broken off from the roots (which were standing) and were lying in a horizontal position with their heads towards the sea. These trees were found in the cultivated bog in different parts of the glen and on the sand at depths of from 3 ½ – 5 ft. below the surface of the bog.

Woods: From the valley of Glenariffe around all the coast of this parish there are still to be found some scattered patches of the great natural woods which at no very distant period covered the sides and lower parts of this parish. In many places, particularly about Garron Point the acclivity of the almost precipitous cliffs is densely covered from its summit to its base with natural hazel wood, and considerable patches of the same kind are to be found along the northern side of the parish. Holly, ash and alder but particularly the former are also to be found.

It is in memory when the townland of Tamlaght and part of the adjacent townlands near the northern extremity of Glenariff were so thickly covered with trees, that cattle entering them never could be found until they came out of them of their own accord, and the acclivity of the steep mountain overhanging the south-east side of Glenariffe was so wooded that a bird might hop from bough to bough from top to bottom.

Coast: There are 8 ½ miles of coast, 4 ½ of which extend along the eastern side of this parish from north to south and 3 along its northern side from east to west forming the southern side of Red Bay. From the western extremity of this, there is a sandy beach which extends for about one mile in a northerly direction forming the western side of the Bay before-mentioned. The entire coast of this parish except the beach at Red Bay is rocky and dangerous and affords no protection to shipping.

The only promontory is Garron Point at the north-east extremity of the northern and eastern coasts of this parish. It is a sharp rocky point rising in two abrupt steps to an elevation of 764 ft. above the sea. The first of these steps is about 300 ft. above the level of the sea and from it one of the most beautiful and extensive views on the northern coast may be had. The drive along the coast of this parish is in the highest degree delightful, and is considered the most interesting on the northern coast of this county. From the picturesque promontory of Garron Point, which is perhaps one of the most conspicuous on the coast nothing can exceed the beauty of the view looking towards the south. The precipitous and beautifully wooded banks which extend along the coast are terminated by the bold headland of Glenarm beyond which the northern extremity of Island Magee is faintly seen. Towards the west the range of hills continues along the northern shore and extends up the south-east side of the romantic valley of Glenariff , which may also be seen from this, and of which valley Red Bay strand forms the eastern extremity. The Scottish coast from the Rinns of Islay to Portpatick, and some of the distant Scottish mountains are distinctly seen from this coast.

[At the base of the cliffs at Garron Point are two caves formed by fissures in the limestone rock. One of these is nearly on a level with the sea. Its width is about 5 ft. and it extends inwards about 150 ft. At its extreme end is a spring well. The other cave has its entrance at the top of a fissure about 50 ft. high and extends inwards about 60 ft. It was much used as a place of refuge in the rebellion of 1798 by many of the present inhabitants of the parish.]

Climate: It has been generally remarked that the crops though sown three weeks earlier on the west side of Glenariffe come in three weeks later than those on the east side. The constant dews from the mountains hinder the crops on their sides from ripening so early as those at a little distance from them. The summits of the mountains are seldom free from dews, fogs and mists which when they set in from the west are invariably followed by rain.

[Exposure to the east wind will account for the lateness of the crops. (Initialled R.K. D(awson)].

SECTION 2 – MODERN TOPOGRAPHY

Towns:
There is no town and but one small village called Carnlough in this parish. It is situated on the main road from Glenarm to Cushendall and on the coast of a bay of the same name. It is 135 miles north of Dublin. Carnlough contains 53 stone houses, threequarters of which are 1 storey high. They are mostly thatched and are of an indifferent description.

The inhabitants are either engaged in fishing or agriculture or in some sort of dealing. They are mostly of the lower class and seem well conducted and industrious. Their principal support seems to be derived from letting lodgings to the crowds of the lower orders who swarm here in summer from the inland country for the benefit of sea bathing and it is not unusual to find 4 families crowded into one small one-storey cabin. Carnlough is rather improving as a few tolerable two-storey houses were built in it last year.

Public buildings in the parish: A good many years ago a small quay or pier was built in the townland of Carnlough north and close to the village of the same name. It is 200 ft long and 20 ft wide. It was erected at an expense of £1,200 by a Mr. Philips (Gibbons), but has been for some years in a state of dilapidation. Small vessels carrying from 15 to 20 tons can come up to this quay.

The Roman Catholic [chapel] in Gallanagh townland is just being finished; it is a plain substantial building 57 ft long by 30 ft wide and would accommodate 300 persons.

Gentlemen’s seats: Drumnasole, the property of Francis Turnly Esq. The house is a very capacious and extensive building, very neat and uniform in its appearance and beautifully situated on a gently sloping ground at the base of precipitous and wooded hill, and in the midst of considerable plantation which prevents it being seen from the road. The house, though it was commenced 25 years ago, is still far from finished internally and has already cost £7,000. It is in a townland of the same name and 1 mile south of Garron Point.

Bay Lodge, [the seat of the Rev. Stewart Dobbs, now (1835)] the residence of Captain Matthewson is prettily situated in the townland of Bay, at the foot of the lofty precipice on the south-east side of Glenariff and at the eastern extremity of that valley. The house is small and two-storey and from it there is a very beautiful view of the opposite side of the Glen. There is some planting and a good garden attached to the house.

[Lemnalary, the seat of Captain Matthewson. This house is now (1835) unoccupied and almost in ruins.]

Nappan, the property of Majes Higginson, is now unoccupied and in bad repair. The house is beautifully situated within ½ mile south of Garron Point and at the foot of the mountain which is covered with hazel to its summit. [There is a good deal of ash and fir trees about the house and a tolerably good orchard. All these residences are situated near the coast.]

Mills: There is a corn mill at Carnlough townland; the wheel is 10ft in diameter by 2 ft. broad and is driven by breast water. There is a tuck mill in Gallanagh townland. The machinery is propelled by an overshot wheel 13 ft in diameter and 2 ft. broad.

Communications: 9 miles of the main road from Glenarm to Cushendall pass along the coast of this parish. Some parts of this road are very hilly and some of it in middling order. A part of the new line of coast road has been lately opened and by it several severe hills on the old road have been avoided. The average breadth of this road is 24 ft.

A road branches off from this one at the southern end of Red Bay and continues up the south-east side of Glenariff. It leads to Ballymena. This road is very nearly level and not in good order. Its average breadth is 23 ft. All these roads are kept in repair at the public expense (there are 3 ¼ miles of the latter roads).

Bridges: There is a bridge of one semi-circular arch 40 ft. long and 90 ft. wide over the Glenariff river between the townlands of Baraghilly and Callisnagh. This bridge is getting into very bad order and if not speedily repaired will fall in. There are several other small bridges and pipes all of which are in tolerable repair.

General appearance and scenery: Nature has done everything to render the appearance and scenery of this parish romantic and interesting and to nature alone is it indebted for all its charms. The peaceful and romantic valley of Glenariffe bounded on either side by lofty and precipitous hills surmounted by a wall of basalt and partially wooded has no rival in the north in wildness or beauty. This with its coast which has already been described have united to render this parish among the most interesting on this most interesting coast.

SECTION 3 – SOCIAL ECONOMY

Early improvements: The present state of the inhabitants of this parish as to their habits, manners and state of civilisation seems to be owing to their intercourse with strangers rather than to any of the political or other events which may have affected the state of society in the neighbouring parishes. There is no doubt that the Scotch made this part of the country the scene of many of their exploits and incursions and the present inhabitants are evidently the descendants of the Scottish settlers of the 16th Century. Their names are a sure indication of this though there is not any name which can be said to be peculiar to them but the names McNeill, McIlvenna, Harvey and McCarra or McCarry are those commonly met with. How far the migration at that time may have improved the inhabitants it is hard to say but at present, particularly in Glenariffe, they hold rather a low rank in the scale of improvement or civilisation.

Local Government: There are neither magistrates nor police residing in this parish. There are 12 coastguards in it. There are no petty sessions. No outrages have been committed even within a distant period. There is not now any illicit distillation or smuggling [but previous to the coast road being opened smuggling of tobacco was carried on to a great extent.] There are no insurances of any kind.

Dispensary: There is no dispensary in this parish. The people particularly along the coast are very healthy and contagious or infectious diseases seldom occur.

Schools: The introduction of schools into this parish and the manner in which they are conducted has caused a visible improvement in the moral habits of the rising generation. The people all seem anxious to have their children instructed.

Poor: There is no regular provision for the poor of this parish.

Religion: There are 111 Episcopalians, 270 Presbyterians and 1,288 Roman Catholics in this parish. The Protestant curate receives a salary from his rector of £60 per annum. The priests income cannot be accurately ascertained. It is however paid by his flock.

Habits of the people: The houses along the coast of this parish are of a much better description than those in the interior parts of it. They are all mostly one-storey high, built of stone and thatched, and generally consist of two rooms. Each room receives light from two glazed windows. Those along the coast are much neater and more cleanly than those in Glenariffe which are of a very inferior description and are comfortless and untidy.

In Glenariffe potatoes, milk and a little meal form the articles of food. Along the eastern coast meal is regularly used with some fish and a little meat. Turf is the only fuel. The people particularly along the coast dress very well and comfortably and are cleanly in their persons.

There are no remarkable instances of longevity or early marriage. Though they are considered rather long livers and the females in Glenariffe frequently marry at the age of 15. The usual number in each family is 5. There are no particular amusements though they are fond of cards, dancing and cock fighting. Dancing has however lately been discontinued by order of the priest.

St. Patrick’s is the only patron’s day which is observed; the observance of it in this as well as in the neighbouring parishes, confined to the Roman Catholics. There are many fabulous and absurd traditions told concerning St. Patrick.

Beal Tinne is the only custom of the kind observed. There are not any peculiar games. Numberless legendary and fabulous tales and songs are recited and sung in Irish round the fire by persons who knew little else. These however are confined to Glenariffe.

A great many beautiful Irish airs are sung by the females in that part of the parish and there are many in it who neither speak nor understand English. The lower class are very fond of music and the voices of the females are remarkably sweet. There is no peculiarity of costume. The lower class are very superstitious. [They have several superstitious notions relative to the ailments of cattle and their prejudice against cutting down or removing old hawthorn trees is very strong as they confidently believe that the committal of such an act will be followed by some signal misfortune to the perpetrator.]

Emigration: About 5 (on an average) annually emigrate in the Spring to ……

About 20 men go annually to the English or Scottish harvests and return when they are over.

Remarkable events: This parish has never given birth to any remarkable person nor has it at any time on record been the scene of any remarkable event except the fabled deeds of Ossian, Fin MacCoul etc.

Townland in which situated Protestants Catholics Male Female Total Remarks as to how supported When established
Drumnasole

30

30

43

17

60

This school is under the London Hibernian Society who grant it £10 per annum. It is held in a house built by Mr. Turnly at an expense of £1,000. Scholars pay ½ d per week

1808

Drumnasole

25

15

40

40

This school is held in the same house and receives a similar grant from the same Society. The scholars pay 1d per week. It is a female school.

1818

Carnlough

92

41

59

51

110

This school is under the Methodist Society. The scholars pay 1s 1d per quarter

1830

Drumnacur

18

28

13

20

This school is under the National Board which grants £10 per annum. Scholars pay from 1s 1d to 2s 0d per quarter

1829

Bay

3

17

2

18

41

This is a female school under the London Hibernian Society who grant it £8 per annum. The scholars pay 1d per week

1830

150

121

132

139

271

Note by James Boyle: Commenced 22 January 1835; finished 24 April 1835. Time employed 42 hours [signed] James Boyle. Endorsed. Received from Mr. Boyle 12 May [18]35

[Initialled] J. McD.

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